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No, indeed there was another way. Mohamed Fiberfill at Flow Inspired Waterejt Mr. The radially revolting, longer holds 21 of adjacent plots of partners 15 are aware together, at her affair ends, by the large inherited springs 16 which get the bars 15 radially new, such that the used legs 20 of the residents are seen in bearing load with the sphinx of the log 1.
Small logs of poor shape can be debarked cleanly and without excessive damage, which is not otherwise possible without removing a certain amount of good fibre. Such equipment, however, requires a larger water supply and is generally restricted to operations of a considerable size. Hydraulic debarkers can handle softwoods and numerous hardwoods well, particularly those with thin bark. However, they cannot effectively handle difficult hardwood species which also cannot generally be debarked by standard mechanical debarkers. Certain timbers, which in the present state of technology are considered to be extremely difficult to debark, include Eucalyptus paniculata which has a massive and very hard bark, E.
An object of the invention is to provide a method of and apparatus for debarking timber which can effectively handle difficult hardwood species, such as those mentioned above, as well as efficiently debarking such timber in large quantities of small, low volume hardwoods of poor configuration with which known high pressure hydraulic debarkers cannot cope efficiently. Another object of the present invention is to provide a method of and apparatus for debarking timber, which reduces substantially the amount of water otherwise used in known forms of high pressure or other forms of debarkers. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, there is provided a hydraulic debarking apparatus including means for causing water to impinge upon and generally radially with respect to the surface of a log to be debarked at a substantially constant, ultra high pressure, of, for instance, at least 25, kPa.
The substantially constant, ultra high pressure of the water impinging generally radially on the log surface can be of the order of 83, kPa, although lower pressures down to, say, 25, kPa, may be used successfully, depending upon the nature of the logs to be debarked. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the means for causing the substantially constant, ultra high pressure water to impinge generally radially on the surface of a log to be debarked comprises at least one ultra high pressure nozzle which is maintained at a predetermined radial distance from the surface of the log during debarking, thereby maintaining the ultra high pressure of the water impinging generally radially upon the log surface at a substantially constant and desired value.
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In this preferred embodiment, each ultra high pressure nozzle is maintained at a predetermined distance from the surface Waetrjet the log durng debarking by resilient means which bears against the log surface bafk to which each nozzle is fixed. Thus, as the profile of the log surface varies, according to its natural growth, the resilient means moves radially inwardly and outwardly with respect to the log surface upon which it bears, thereby maintaining each nozzle at a predetermined distance from the undulating log surface.
As a consequence, the ultra high pressure of the water impinging generally radially upon the log surface is maintained substantially constant. Each ultra high pressure nozzle may be rotatable around the log, in a plane generally normal to the longitudinal axis thereof, during debarking. Alternatively, the log can be rotated about its own axis with respect to the or each nozzle. Prior to being fed individually to the debarking apparatus 10, the logs 1 are loaded on to a "waterfall" or "cascade" type unscrambler deck not shown consisting of three sections which can be controlled individually.
The log feed speed varies from 6.
A rotating log loader not shown places each log separately on Waterjet strip bark a chain conveyor 11 which feeds each log to the input at the left hand end of the apparatus Before describing the particular form of the hydraulic debarking apparatus 10, some basic principles of fluid mechanics will now be considered in relation to achieving efficient practical application of water blasting techniques to the removal of the bark from the logs during their passage through the debarking apparatus. These principles govern the "debarking power" which can be applied when such factors as jet velocity, nozzle size, engine power and water delivery volume are specified. These and other factors are related to each other by equations whose solutions lead to the attainment of a correct balance of such factors, which, in turn, achieves debarking of the logs without causing any substantial surface breakdown of the timber.
The following equation is of basic importance: This equation relates the velocity of the water jet delivered through a nozzle directly to the pressure of the fluid and nozzle orifice. It is important to recognise this relationship, because the desired pressure can only be achieved by the proper combination of nozzle orifice and pump volume. This can be illustrated as follows. Where a TC No. Another consideration of prime importance is the size of engine driving the pump. If the engine does not have sufficient power, then obviously pressure volume cannot be maintained. This is expressed by another simple but important relationship, namely,: Tables providing the technical characteristics of such hoses are available and it is important to use them, because the water blasting process may be a failure if the incorrect hose is fitted.
Another factor of considerable importance in determining the effects of the water jets is the angle of incidence which is the angle of impact measured between each jet and the surface of the log. During use of the apparatus 10 on a pinus elliottii log, the importance of a substantially constant spacing between the nozzles and the log 1 to be debarked can be demonstrated. It has been found that there is an optimum distance for this factor which has to be kept constant, or at least substantially constant, during debarking. The actual distance required varies with the species of timber and the need to maintain this constant nozzle distance presented at one time a substantial practical problem, because of the variable sizes of the logs and the fast rate of feed through the debarking apparatus To solve this problem, a novel component of the apparatus 10 was designed and built, the completed component's structure being a strongly made framework shaped in the form of a deep tapered, generally circular, open-ended basket-type cradle 13 with axially-extending, heavy duty metal bars 15 which are pivoted at the wider axial open end.
This cradle 13 is fixed horizontally in the mouth of an "anti-thrash" tunnel The wider open end of the cradle 13, into which each log 1 is fed longitudinally, narrows to a diameter at its other open end which is equal to a minimum log diameter size, because each bar 15 is urged radially inwardly by a bias provided by tensioned springs The ends of the bars are curved slightly radially outwardly and eight jet nozzles are attached to each of them at predetermined locations. This ensures that, whatever the log size the ultra high pressure water strikes the log surface from the optimum distance of, say, 80 mm, in the particular case of pinus elliottii logs.
In operation, logs 1 are conveyed through the cradle 13 to the downstream end of the cradle and log sections of minimum diameter pass under the jets without altering the size of the framework. Larger log sections force the bars radially outwardly, but because the spring bias keeps the bias 15 in constant contact with the log surface, the nozzles 19 maintain the correct distance from the log surface. This ingenious arrangement provides excellent working results. In more detail, and with particular regard to FIGS.
Strip bark Waterjet
Waterjt At the other, downstream end of the cradle 13, each bar 15 is provided with at least one radially inwardly directed Waterjeg Each bar 15 is generally L-shaped with its shorter leg 20 arranged to bear against strkp surface of a log 1 to be debarked. The radially extending, longer legs 21 of adjacent pairs of bars 15 are connected together, at their outer ends, by the strongly tensioned springs 16 which bias the bars 15 radially inwardly, such that the shorter legs 20 of the bars are maintained in bearing contact with the surface of the log 1. Each nozzle 19 of each bar 15 is mounted on the longer leg 21 thereof, to be directed radially inwardly towards the log surface.
Ultra high pressure water is supplied to the nozzles via suitable hoses In this preferred embodiment, there are eight bars 15, although only six are shown in FIG.
In the non-working position of the cradle 13, as shown in FIGS. When a log 1 to be debarked is passed through the cradle 13, as shown in FIGS. As the log 1 continues its passage through the cradle 13 upon the conveyor 11, the bars 15 are resiliently moved radially inwardly and outwardly in dependence upon the shorter legs 20 bearing against Waterjet strip bark undertaking surface of the log. In this way, the nozzles 19 are maintained at a substantially baro distance from the log surface, thereby maintaining the water impinging thereupon at a substantially etrip, ultra high pressure to cause the required debarking Waterjet strip bark the log 1. As described Waterjet strip bark, the debarked log 1 then progresses downstream through the anti-thrash tunnel The jets are regulated to provide Waterjeet of approximately 48, kPa which was found to Waterjet strip bark the most effective value for barm particular debarking apparatus, although pressures of 69, kPa can be achieved with suitable motors, for instance, a three phase volt power supply or a diesel engine.
The water is delivered from a motor driven pump Waterejt this particular water blasting arrangement, there is preferably a safety factor of 3: The jets are regulated automatically and the nozzles safety stop for machine pressure is controlled by an operator. The waste bark material removed from the logs by the ultra brak pressure water jets is deposited under Waterjeet on to a strio belt conveyor 14 which takes it to any suitable waste disposal area. Also, any chunks of thick bark can be collected periodically from underneath the waterfall or cascade deck and transferred to a central waste pile not shown.
At the foundation level of the apparatus 10, used water from the ultra high pressure debarking method flows under gravity in to an open concrete drain also not shown Watejret channels it through a series of gratings into a stfip trap not shown where large pieces of solid waste are filtered from the water. It is then pumped bagk to a head station not shown from which it flows slowly through a series of settling ponds down to a main water holding pond. In the settling ponds, the remaining dirt and fines soon fall to the bottom and the water is finally clarified by using a flocculating agent, preferably, "Actizyme" additive K which is added periodically at the rate of 25 kg per million liters of water used.
The total cost of this additive is negligible. The "clean" water from the main water holding pond is then pumped up to a storage tank and subsequently fed by gravity to the nozzles through suitable filters. This recycling system, therefore, solves the two problems of high water usage and accelerated machinery wear. As can be seen from FIGS. This further tunnel 12' can also be provided with ultra high pressure water nozzles and a suitable cradle arrangement 13' as in the case of upstream tunnel A number of trials employing the inventive apparatus and method have been carried out and these are detailed in the following Example.
Three samples of each species were collected and provided a gradient of debarking difficulty, due mainly to the different thickness of bark. Samples dimensions, bark characteristics and relevant observations are noted in Table 1. All samples were harvested in the shortest possible time within 24 hoursmarked, hermetically enclosed within polythene bags and prepared for testing the next day. Timber species mm mm m m. The connecting rods were made of nodular iron and fitted with precision-type split insert bearings and extra-large hardened and ground wrist pins.
The piston-type crossheads were over-sized for reduced wear. The simplified design permitted complete field maintenance by semi-skilled personnel. All piping connections were straight boss threads with SAE O-ring seals to eliminate stress and prevent leakage. Above, I mentioned looking around and seeing mostly engineers. But not all engineers are created equal and as I know very well most no, not all engineers know as little chemistry as I know engineering. But there are at least two engineers who, as did I, realized that jet coherence was not entirely controlled by the mechanical engineering and design of nozzles.
No, indeed there was another way. Alter the chemistry of the water. All three of us, independently, realized the unique advantages of polymer inclusion in the waterjetting system. It performs equally well in air, under submerged conditions, and with or without abrasives whether introduced as a suspension or by the commonly used Venturi technique. It more effectively and efficiently cuts a wide range of materials from soft foams to granite. Further details are posted on the internet in two review papers that I published in and Interview and discussion with Dr. Howells The following interview of Dr. Howells was conducted by Carl Olsen.
Very definitely there are big advantages in all applications. Similar improvements are achieved in drilling, cutting—with or without abrasives—and in air or under submerged conditions. Edge cut quality is either maintained or improved depending upon the substrate. The internal water phase contains the polyacrylamide. In order to use the product, the emulsion has to be broken or—more exactly—inverted to an oil-in-water emulsion. In solution the macromolecular molecules of SUPER-WATER and their associated aggregates of water are coiled although they might adopt some measure of linearity under conditions of flow.
The backbone whilst being elongated would be readily accessible and shearing by carbon-carbon bond scission will occur. The active ingredients in SUPER-WATER are, as mentioned previously, macromolecular with a molecular weight ranging from 16 to 18 million, so the bonding of water molecules or hydration takes a finite time. This is because each monomeric unit of polyacrylic acids and of polyacrylamides bonds 13 to 14 molecules of water. Obviously, this aggregation of polymer and water cannot take place instantaneously because it must proceed by formation of sequential layers of the 13 to 14 water molecules.
The hydration can be achieved in either a holding tank or a length of low pressure tubing. They are given to provide a general idea of cost. Contact the distributor for current pricing. Mohamed Hashish at Flow International and Mr. Renato Lombari at Soheil Mosun Ltd. Vince Imlay of Waterjet Inc. Imlay has already installed two such systems at other locations and consulted with the Biltrite Corporation, Ripley, Mississippi on installing a unit with which it has had very great success. Howells, We very much appreciate your assistance in resolving our problems with our water jet cutters. This had the impact of at least doubling our output per machine hour.