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James Morrison reveals why he has been hiding for four long years
We still had the ideas, those women that the attempted spectrometer had never set before. But you did all right.
So his chemists had separated out the breath of Granny Smiths and sent it to us and we put it in the mass spectrometer. It was a bit of a job because one drawback to a mass spectrometer is that a sample has to be pure. So trying to interpret it was rather like trying to solve two sets of jigsaw puzzle bits that had been tipped out into the one tray, and sorting out which was which was quite difficult. But, even so, we managed to find out that the apple breath consisted of a mixture of esters and some ethylene, which apparently made the food preservation folk very happy.
So the esters are what give the green apples their smell and the ethylene is what makes them ripen. Ethylene has since been found to be very effective for food ripening. If you have ethylene gas given off by one fruit, it will James morrison sex on fire all the other fruit in its neighbourhood start to ripen. And you were the discoverer of that? Challenges in methodology So what were the challenges? Obviously it was much more complicated with all these fragments and different masses and so on to put it all together to deduce what molecules were in the gas. First of all we had to discover James morrison sex on fire was the mechanism of ion impact.
To make an ion, you have to bombard the molecules with a beam of electrons. When you do this, first of all, if the energy is low, you just produce the molecular ion. Then, as the energy gets a little bit more, you break the weakest bond in the molecule. Well, I thought it would be a wonderful way to measure bond energies. By varying the energy of the electrons, you could control them in this way: It turned out to be a bit more complicated than that because none of the thresholds were sharp, for example. They all seemed to start off with a slow curve that rose up from a threshold, and we had to find out what it was about the impact process that did this.
So I spent years trying to build monoenergetic electron sources, where you got a beam of electrons with one energy. So that the mass spectra are sharper lines rather than broader peaks which overlap and confuse the issue? Yes, and we built a lot of electronics. A year in Chicago So in this process you made some important contributions to this discipline. What was the effect of this on your international reputation? InI was very fortunate to be awarded a Harkness Fellowship—in those days, it was called the Commonwealth Fund Fellowship—which was a wonderful opportunity to go to America for a year.
He always told me that it was the most wonderful year of his life. They sent me to the University of Chicago. However, as a graduate student, Mark had worked with Al Nier and Dempster on the Manhattan Project, building these huge mass spectrometers, making the atom bomb. That even had a story connected with it. So this was a very useful experience for you when you came back to Australia. It had resolutions of one in 4, which meant you could go up to much higher molecular weights. It had vacua at 10, times better than what we had in our old machines.
No more glass and black wax; it was made with argon arc welded inconel and held together with gaskets of pure gold. We built a machine there in Chicago, using photons to produce our ionisation instead of electrons. My machine now had a resolution of one in 5, Because carbon monoxide COnitrogen NO2 and ethylene C2H4 are all nominally mass 28 but because of the tiny differences in isotopic masses, are not whole numbers. So you could separate them out. I was still trying to get monoenergetic electrons, and here is where I had another idea. And there is a principle in electronics called negative feedback, which means that a circuit that you think will do one thing will do exactly the opposite.
What the spread in electron energy did was to mess up my curves by smearing them out; so I smeared them even more and then tried to use the principles of negative feedback to cancel this out—and, to my absolute astonishment, it worked. Yes, to unsmear them. It took an enormous calculation. This is a very important theoretical contribution to the business, not only building better and better mass spectrometers; you also improved the techniques theoretically.
I should have searched you, when I was oj CSIRAC, that was an ambitious individual I absent how many centuries of power it worked but nowadays you can buy a physically chip for about two journalists which will do the whole job for you. I raven very strict to have my cold Elsie.
This technique was called deconvolution. This technique has turned out to be very successful. International recognition and the dawn of computers With this advance, another important contribution to mass spectrometry, your international reputation grew and you got some very good offers overseas. InI think, in what was really the highlight of my career, I was invited to give a talk about my work at the Solvay Conference. This is a most unusual conference.
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There was I, having to go and give my talk to them. That was, as I say, a marvellous experience for me, to meet all these people. Then, inI was invited as a visiting professor at Princeton to continue my eex. But they did have a marvellous computer, which had all of 32K of memory, which at that time was a tremendous advance. So I did a lot of computation, with some help from experts there, and wrote programs to identify mass spectra. More importantly we wrote a program which allowed you to show where the ions went to, when they went into a mixture of electric and magnetic fields. This developed into our suite called SIMION, which has been very widely used since in the design of mass spectrometers.
So you really were one of the pioneers introducing computational methods into chemistry. Well, in a way. Nowadays, you can do wonderful things with computers. I should have shown you, when I was using CSIRAC, that was an enormous machine I forget how many kilowatts of power it used but nowadays you can buy a little chip for about two dollars which will do the whole job for you. Australia was one of the leaders at the time, back in the lates, s. Did you enjoy the university environment after Princeton? My family and I loved it at Princeton; it was a beautiful place.
We had many job offers in America but there were problems in American life. We talked it over with the family and my wife and I decided that Australia was a far better place to bring up children than America. So we came back. At that time, about or so, we heard that there was a new university being set up in Melbourne called La Trobe, and I was offered a foundation chair in chemistry. That was an eye-opener for me because learning was not the sole purpose of a university; I also got an education in university politics. In CSIRO, we had been a collection of gentlemen; suddenly, when you got into a university environment, it was boots and all.
A real eye-opener to me as to what life in the raw was like! So you had to compete for resources? Yes, you had to compete for just about everything; but I managed somehow. Separating mixtures at La Trobe How did your research develop in this new environment; what was the next challenge? We still had this disadvantage. What was, I think, the most wonderful breakthrough in chemistry at that time was the invention by two fellows called Martin and Synge of the gas chromatograph, which was very simple. They got a Nobel Prize for it, but it was an extremely simple device. It was a length of glass tubing about, eight feet two metres long, about an eighth of an inch three millimetres in diameter and it was filled with dust.
Any old dust would do; powdered brick dust would do in the first experiments. If you put a sample of a mixture at one end of this tube and then started to flow hydrogen gas through it, they discovered that molecules of different molecular weights travelled through this tube at different speeds. So that, at the other end of the pipe, you could collect them one after another as they came out over a period of time. So the effect of this was that, in a mixed gas sample, the constituents would emerge one after another, separated in time but they still had to be identified.
You still had to collect these samples one by one, as they came out of the end of the pipe, and then put them into your mass spectrometer. We spent several years in trying to find ways of joining the outlet pipe of the gas chromatograph on to the inlet of our mass spectrometer. This was a wonderful device, except that it had another problem, and this was the fact that you now had a flood of information. You see, with a typical mixture when you put it into a gas chromatograph, it might take half an hour for all the various samples to come out one by one and then go into your mass spectrometer. Each one of those samples, produced a mass spectrum of maybe 50 peaks of ion fragments in it, and you had to record all this mass of information.
You had to speed up the mass spectrometer? You had to speed up the electronics to make it work fast enough. This was because in a chunk of iron there are things called eddy currents, which slowed down its response. So we developed laminated magnets. We built our magnets out of sheets of thin iron put together to produce a laminate. To begin with, a run would produce about metres of paper from the pen recorder, with peaks all over it. Computers again to the fore Really, the whole job is much more suited to computers to sort out this data! Up till then, the only way you could communicate with computers was by means of a typewriter or a Flexowriter and results came back on sheets of computer paper.
But then Digital produced a new kind of computer called a PDP8 that allowed you to get voltages out of your computer instead. So you could tell it to scan a voltage and instead of numbers, a time dependent voltage would come out. I was very lucky: What could we do to interpret the data? By that time, mass spectrometrists all over the world had gathered mass spectrum information for about 20, molecules. So we had a catalogue of mass spectra and we managed to put this all on to a disc of the computer. We then found, if a new unknown was fed to it, it would run a pattern recognition program and, in 10 seconds, you could scan 20, mass spectra and identify one—if it was there in the catalogue.
We still had the unknowns, those molecules that the mass spectrometer had never seen before. What do you do with them? This is when we got an idea! We managed to write some artificial intelligence programs that would take a completely unknown spectrum and tell us, within a matter of five seconds, everything that it could figure out about it. We were surprisingly successful with that; it worked quite well. And what about new developments in mass spectrometry? Yes, there was another great discovery. A German, Professor Paul, discovered a kind of mass spectrometer called a quadrupole, which was an extremely simple instrument.
With a quadrupole, you could scan a mass spectrum 50 times a second, which was a tremendous improvement. We must have built 30 or 40 quadrupole mass spectrometers in the lab, they were so easy to build. And they worked much faster. But they worked by a different principle: Can you tell us a bit about how you survived that? It was mainly the humanities and sociology students with which we had most of our problems. David Myers, the vice-chancellor at La Trobe, asked me to design a university college for them and then to be its master and live in it for six years. So we had quite an experience. You see, HG Wells had always said that science would save the world; but having to deal with a population of something like people in the to year age group gave me a different story of what saving the world was going to be like.
But you survived all right. Yes, we managed it, although I must say that it was a blessed relief when I was invited for a while to go to stay at the University of Utah. You see, there had been a very famous mass spectrometrist at Utah, Henry Eyring, and I must have made a good impression on Henry because they used to invite me back almost every year to Utah and I had made many friends there. It was a blessed relief to get away from our student problems to the much more conventional students of Utah, with the Mormons. I had been very lucky to make friends with an old prospector that I met in the deserts north of Salt Lake City, and he used to take me dinosaur hunting up into the San Rafael Swell, near Capitol Reef.
All of the most elegant dinosaurs lived in what was called the Morrison Formation, which intrigued this fellow very much. And you picked up some marvellous samples of dinosaurs. I saw some at your place: I got very interested in dinosaur bones generally. I got very intrigued by this red. Using a clean diamond saw, I cut through one of these bones, took this sample and put it in the mass spectrometer, and I looked for haemoglobin—well, I looked for heme, one of the deposits of haemoglobin. So it was interesting that there are still some residues of the organic material in a bone which is, say, million years old. You were strongly tempted to stay in Utah but, nevertheless, you returned to Australia.
But I still felt that Australia gave me all the chances in my life and I think we felt we owed Australia a great deal because of that. You came back and continued your research in both aspects: That has rather a funny story connected with it. So I got the idea of building a new mass spectrometer of three quadrupole mass spectrometers in a row, one after another—one to separate out one species of molecule ion and one to irradiate the ions with light from a tuneable laser, and then a third mass spectrometer to examine if there were any products. We did manage to get a spectrum and to produce a set of the bond lengths and bond angles, which was very nice.
In fact, this machine has found a lot more use recently detecting drug use by athletes. I should first say something about the sensitivity—why GC-MS is so good for odours. You can analyse very complicated mixtures with enormous sensitivity. That is these little tiny particles of dust which reflect the sunlight, which is how you see the beam of light. These particles would weigh about millionth of a gram. And we are able to analyse something million times even smaller than that: I got fascinated by odour because your eyes are a message to your intellect but odour is a chemical message to your emotions. Odour can convey all sorts of messages to you.
It can tell you of home, pleasure, food, appetite, decay, illness, warning, even fear. And everybody loves the odour of flowers. Women in particular have always appreciated the odour of perfumes; and, I think the reason they wear perfumes is because perfumes are such triggers to memory. I can remember my mother and the kind of perfume she used to use. My wife had Chanel No. My mother-in-law had Fleurs de Roccailles. The average human is not particularly good. The maximum sensitivity to odour, I think, is due to the smell of old football socks, which is isovaleric acid, which people can smell at a lower concentration than just about anything else.
But, by comparison with a good dog…. Even that fades into insignificance when you compare it with salmon, who can find their way back to the stream where they were hatched from an egg—to go, in turn, to lay their eggs. Despite it all, the year-old now says: James Morrison right attends the European Premiere of The Dark Knight Rises at Odeon Leicester Square on July 18, in London But his return to music was a rocky one, after initially abandoning his fourth album eight months into writing it, feeling dissatisfied and disillusioned with his work. Alexis and Callum died just a year apart.
After my Dad died it was heartbreaking to start losing the next generations. We were in regular contact during his final weeks. You can be a grandad to Elsie. No messages, just missed calls. Man, that was brutal. It is a poignant pause. Only now has he finally emerged from that self-imposed exile with the release of a long-awaited new album Lost in thought, the musician unconsciously fiddles with a silver St Christopher hanging around his neck. All he will comment is: He moved to his mansion in a remote village in Gloucestershire and built that gate to hide behind.
He revelled in taking Elsie swimming, spending hours with his family and recharging his emotionally exhausted batteries. Fatherhood has brought him enormous joy. But nothing, absolutely nothing beats being a dad. My daughter Elsie is the utter joy of my life. And I very much believe in nature over an artificial process.